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Refuse derived fuel (RDF) is produced from domestic and business waste, which includes biodegradable material as well as plastics. Non-combustible materials such as glass and metals are removed and the residual material is then shredded.
Refuse derived fuel is used to generate energy at recovery facilities, many of them in Europe where they produce electricity and hot water for communal heating systems.
Solid recovered fuel (SRF) is a high quality alternative to fossil fuel produced from mainly commercial waste including paper, card, wood, textiles and plastic. Solid recovered fuel has gone through additional processing to improve the quality and value. It has a higher calorific value than RDF and is used in facilities such as cement kilns.
We offer both RDF and SRF solutions to businesses looking to convert waste into energy.
Bio-Energy Research Group
University of Nigeria,
Nsukka 410001 Nigeria
Name: Bio-Energy Research Group
The non-renewable nature, and the numerous environmental problems associated with use of fossil fuels have sustained interest in renewable and environmentally friendly bio-energies. Nigeria is blessed with a lot of biomass materials that can be converted to various forms of bio-energies. Unfortunately, apart from firewood, charcoal and to less extent wood pellets, there is no commercial production of bio-energies in Nigeria. This research group will focus on development and commercialization of various forms of bio-energies with high potential in Nigeria. These include Bio-ethanol, Bio-diesel, bio-gas, bio-hydrogen, and microbial bio-fuels. Various biomass materials such as food and non-food crops, photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms, agro-processing wastes, timber residues, wastewater, and other waste materials will be explored for efficient production of different forms of bio-energies.
Prof. James C. Ogbonna (Department of Microbiology – Group Leader)
Prof. M. Uguru (Department of Crop Science)
Prof. Obi Njoku (Department of Biochemistry)
Dr. C. O. Nwuche (Department of Microbiology)
Prof E. Obe (Department of Electrical Engineering)
Dr. O. Udengwu (Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology)
Engr Dr. E. C. Okoroigwe (Department of Mechanical Engineering)
Before you get any further, let me provide this bit of context. Israel is the size of New Jersey. China is the world's third largest country with almost a sixth of the world's population. You're asking for a military comparison between those two.
SECOND EDIT: The CIA Factbook estimates a 250x discrepancy in potential combat forces, with about 3.4 million for available and 2.9 million fit for Israel to deploy as compared to 840 million available and 600 million fit for China to deploy.
With that in mind...
It's sort of a tricky question to answer, in part because of the general lack of conventional wars recently. Israel has permanent, asymmetric warfare being waged against them, with occasional operations to remove Hamas's missile platforms. China has spent a while shaking their military penis at the US and at their neighbors.
First, some facts:
- Israel inarguably has the strongest military for their size in the world. No other country even roughly their size shows up on the who's who of military powers except England, and they're scaling back their military to cut costs.
- Israel's spent the last few decades fighting asymmetric warfare.
- Israel is made of reservists; an overwhelming majority of the populace could be called on with days' notice.
- Israel has Iron Dome, the only effective missile defense of its kind.
- China has more money and manpower to throw at the problem.
But there are a still lot of unanswered (and unanswerable) questions:
- Whose planes are better? Whose tanks are better? Whose missiles are better?
- Is Israel's technological advantage large enough to overcome their lack of manpower?
- What's the battleground? Israel has considerably more expertise fighting in deserts than almost every other major power, for example.
- How is the fight being carried out? Is it an infantry battle? A tank blitz? Dogfighting? Urban warfare? A missile exchange?
- How are they getting there? Does one side have to haul ass before the fight even starts?
- Who's pitching in, if anyone? Does Israel also have to fend off their neighbors? Is the US pitching in for them?
- What's the objective? Are they going to start annihilating each others' populace, or is this purely a professional thing?
- Imagine if they all got magically transported somewhere. Israel would probably win tank and aircraft jousts close to 10 times in 10. But, Israel's so wildly outnumbered that such information is surprisingly hard to weight.
So my answer would be that unless you artificially constrain the question, there isn'tan answer.
Besides, those two countries are very far apart. If China wanted Israel dead, they'd sell Hezbollah a nuke, instead of something with a return-to-sender address like a missile or a plane.
I vote for Israel.
China will never be conquered by any large populations (Huns, Turks and Japanese), but by smaller nations like the Xianbei, Mongols and Manchu. I believe Isreal is even stronger than the latter. So with that having been said, Israel would win just as Mongol and Manchu did. And 100 years later, Jews will become the 57th ethnic group that speak Chinese & eat the famous pork meat of China.
You can conquer Rome, but you can't refuse having Latin words come into your language, and their very delicious foods enter through your stomach. The same is true for China. Therefore, if you refuse to give up the Hebrew language that you revived through thick and thin, (which was jealousyly admired by the Manchus), please don't let Conquering China come into your mind.
That's our lesson from our own history. I shared it with you.
There are already loads of answers to this question, some of which are pretty good. However, most of the answers written before mine are way off base by mentioning the size of China versus the size of Israel or relative populations. Those factors happen to be pretty insignificant in this consideration in the most likely scenario of China trying to invade Israel. As are cyber warfare considerations, since "war" still means with weapons in the real world and not "cyberwar."
The question itself is really too vague because a lot depends on initial conditions of an such war.
So let's break this down into a few separate questions:
1. Could China successfully invade Israel?
Almost certainly not. While it is possible in a bizarro alternate Earth to imagine China trying to invade Israel, how will Chinese forces get there? The overland route would go through hostile nations the Chinese would not care to fight on the way and even if they did, it would take a long time and Israel would have plenty of time to prepare. China could not effectively move and supply its entire army--so the army that arrived at Israel would be just a fraction of its total strength, with supply lines too long and no natural air bases. Israeli equipment is more modern and their personnel better trained than China's--Israel could maul the Chinese forces that actually arrived at Israel in any such war. Note that it bears saying that neither of them would want to fight such a war.
The situation is even worse if China tried to invade Israel by sea. China's navy isn't all that awesome and certainly isn't ready to project power thousands of miles from home. The Israeli Air Force would send the Chinese fleet to the bottom of the Red Sea and there would be nothing the Chinese could do about it--even if the Saudi and Egyptian Air Forces flew out to protect the Chinese ships, they STILL would almost certainly get wiped out before delivering their troops.
2. Could Israel successfully invade China?
No way. In this case, the size and population of China really DO matter. Though first off the Israelis would have the problem of projecting power that far (and why would they even want to?). But if they managed to say, refuel their air force enough to make strikes against a Chinese city, they'd probably be a lot more successful than the Chinese would be the other way around. But so what? China really IS huge relative to Israel and there is no way for Israel to defeat them in battle by invading them. There just aren't enough Israelis to pull it off. (And again, why would they even want to?)
3. Could China and Israel engage in a nuclear war and if so, who would win?
Short answer: nobody knows. This is actually a realistic possibility as far as China definitely has missiles which can reach Israel and Israel's Jericho 3 missile supposedly can reach China. But as far as I know, the number of missiles and nuclear warheads Israel has is secret. And does Israel have a ballistic missile defense system? They have a defense against tactical missiles, perhaps the best in the world. So they might have a defense against incoming Chinese missiles. That along with excellent Israeli intelligence means it might at least be possible that Israel would know the Chinese are going to launch missiles in advance and take the missile sites out before they do--while simultaneously protecting themselves from any Chinese missiles that might be inbound. NOTE that the total number of Chinese nuclear warheads are thought to be in the hundreds, not in the thousands like the USA and Russia. It's actually possible Israel as many nukes as China has, though perhaps not likely.
Though having said that, in general a large country can absorb nuclear hits with at least some of its population surviving. Israel is so small only a few nuclear strikes would totally devastate the whole country. In general you'd have to say China would have a big advantage over Israel in a nuclear war. But we just don't know how it would turn out, because we don't know enough about Israeli nuclear weapons and ballistic missile defense capacities.
So would you go to war against Israel if you were China? No way. And I don't see it happening the other way around, either.
||1 281 900
||2 300 000
||8 000 000
|Available for military:
||73 270 043
||385 821 101
||610 billion $
||228 billion $
|Percent of GDP:
||324 527 000
||1 373 541 278
||9 857 306 km2
||9 596 961 km2
||7 200 warheads
||×See current equipment
|Armoured fighting vehicles:
18 years of age (17 years of age with parental consent) for male and female voluntary service; no conscription; maximum enlistment age 42 (Army), 27 (Air Force), 34 (Navy), 28 (Marines); service obligation 8 years, including 2-5 years active duty (Army), 2 years active (Navy), 4 years active (Air Force, Marines); DoD is eliminating prohibitions restricting women from assignments in units smaller than brigades or near combat units.
18-24 years of age for selective compulsory military service, with a 2-year service obligation; no minimum age for voluntary service (all officers are volunteers); 18-19 years of age for women high school graduates who meet requirements for specific military jobs; a recent military decision allows women in combat roles.
One thing that comes from using a generator as your only source of electricity for many years is that you tend to learn a thing or two about fixing common generator problems.
Today, I thought I would share some of the things we have learned over the years with the hope that many of you can benefit from our experience.
There’s nothing more frustrating than a generator that is difficult to start or one that starts but doesn’t run well.
If you’re one of those people who is struggling with a stubborn generator, you’ve come to the right place! Read on and hopefully this article will be able to help you.
Why Generators Can Be Difficult to Start
The main problem with most home generators is that they just don’t get used enough. Most people only use their generator occasionally. Unfortunately, when they put them into storage, they usually leave untreated gasoline in the tank.
Perhaps the most important thing you can learn from this article is that old gas left in a generator’s tank will make your life a living nightmare if you let it stay in there too long.
In just a matter of months, untreated gasoline can leave a thick gooey varnish-like residue in the fuel system. In our experience of dealing with the small engines on generators, it’s this crud that will most often prevent a generator from starting.
3 Essential Things Generator Engines Need to Run
The beginning is usually a good place to start so I’ll start there. All generator engines need three things to run. These three things are listed below:
- Fuel – This can be gasoline, diesel, propane or natural gas.
- Oxygen – The air that your engine needs must be clean so it must always be drawn in through an air filter of some kind.
- Spark – Unless your engine is a diesel, you’ll have one or more spark plugs that ignite the mixture of air and fuel inside the combustion chamber of the engine.
How Generator Engines Work
Before you can figure out why your generator won’t start, you really should understand the basics about how small engines work. I’ve outlined this in a step by step manner to make it simple to understand.
- When you pull on the starter cord, the engine draws air and gas into the carburetor.
- The carburetor mixes the air and gas and sprays a fine mist which is a mixture of air and gas into the combustion chamber.
- The engine’s piton moves to the top of the combustion chamber and compresses this air/fuel mixture.
- When the air/fuel mixture is adequately compressed, the spark plug releases a spark.
- This spark ignites the air/fuel mixture.
- The air/fuel mixture burns very quickly and as it burns it expands. This rapid expansion forces the piston down.
- As the piston is forced down, it rotates the crankshaft of the engine. It’s the crankshaft that it’s connected to the device that actually produces electricity.
- As the piston is moving downwards, it draws in another puff of air and gas.
- When the piston returns to the top of the cylinder head, the entire process repeats itself.
- This cycle continues until the engine either runs out of gas or you move the on/off switch to the off position. This switch is often referred to as a “kill switch” because activating it will kill (or turn off) the engine.
What to Do If Your Generator Won’t Start
Over the years, we’ve helped a lot of people who had problems starting a generator. The following are the list of steps that we would take anytime someone had a stubborn engine that just didn’t want to start.
Check the Gasoline: If the engine won’t start, the first thing we would do is ask how long the gas has been in the tank. Most of the time, the answer is that they can’t remember so the first thing we do is carefully drain the old stale gasoline into a recycle container.
Then we put some fresh gas into the tank. The other thing we do is drain any old stale gasoline from the carburetor float bowl. It won’t do you any good to have fresh gas in the tank if the gas in the float bowl is a mixture of stale gas and water so be sure to drain this as well.
Check the Oil: You may think that low oil wouldn’t prevent an engine from starting but it actually can. If the oil level in your generator is too low, you can cause permanent engine damage by running it without enough oil. What you might not realize is that many modern engines are equipped with what is called a “low oil shutoff sensor”. This sensor is designed to prevent the engine from being damaged by automatically shutting the engine off if the sensor detects that the level of oil is too low.
Make Sure the Fuel Shutoff Valve Isn’t Closed: Believe it or not, this is a common problem that is often overlooked. People often remember that their fuel tank has a shutoff valve and they shut it off before they put it into storage but for some reason they forget all about this valve when they attempt to start it again.
Not all generators will have a shutoff valve but many do so be sure to check to make sure that yours is open. It’s worth pointing out that some generators, like our Honda EU2000i has a shutoff switch on the actual gas cap. If that valve is left in the off position, the generator will run for a few minutes and then it will suddenly stop running. This is because the carburetor isn’t getting any gas.
Make Sure the On/Off Switch Is Turned to the On Position: We currently own three generators and they all have on/off switchs. It would seem like a no-brainer but it’s not uncommon for people to pull and pull on the starter cord only to find out later that they didn’t actually have the switch in the on position.
Make Sure the Choke Is in the Full Choke Position: When you’re starting a generator, you’ll need to put the choke in the full choke position. What this does is restrict the amount of oxygen that passes through the carburetor and increases the amount of gasoline.
With a generator that is functioning properly, a cold engine (meaning an engine that hasn’t been started and warmed up yet) will start with the choke in the full choke position. After a few seconds, it will stall if you leave it in the full choke position. This is because the air to gas mixture is too “rich”. This just means that it’s getting too much gas and not enough air.
With a generator that has a cold engine, you’ll move the lever to full choke, start the engine, let it run for a few seconds, move the choke to the half choke position and then move it to the run position. This means that the choke is wide open and it’s no longer restricting the flow of air into the carburetor.
If the engine will start but it won’t say running, your carburetor probably has an obstruction in the tiny passageways and will most likely need to be cleaned.
It’s been our experience that if the engine will only run in the full or half choke position, it’s quite rare for this problem to fix itself. What you’ll experience is an engine that starts but stalls shortly thereafter or one that will stay running but sounds like it’s surging or stumbling.
Make Sure the Air Filter is Clean: The air filter is essential for preventing damaging dirt and debris from entering the combustion chamber of the engine. It must be in place but if it’s dirty, it won’t let enough air pass through it. This will cause the ratio of gas to air to be incorrect. The mixture will be “rich” so the carburetor will be getting too much gas and not enough air.
Sometimes people try running their engine without an air filter because the filter is too dirty. As mentioned, this can permanently damage the engine so don’t do it. It can also cause the opposite of a “rich” air/fuel mixture. If you try running the engine without an air filter in place, it will be “lean”. This just means that it’s getting too much air and not enough fuel.
If your air filter is dirty and it is the kind that you can clean, follow the instructions in your owner’s manual and clean it properly. If it’s a paper element air filter that isn’t user serviceable, replace it with a new one.
Make Sure the Spark Plug is in Good Condition: Remove the spark plug and make sure that it isn’t “fouled”. A fouled spark plug will have sludge or a lot of heavy dark carbon accumulations. If your spark plug looks bad, replace it with the appropriate plug for your generator’s engine.
While you have the spark plug out, this is a good time to check to make sure that your engine is actually sending electricity to the plug so that it will be able to deliver a spark. The best way to learn how to do that is to look for a YouTube video. Just go to YouTube and type “Check Spark on a Small Engine”.
If your spark plug is in good condition but you don’t actually see a spark when you test it, the reason your generator won’t run is most likely electrical. We’ve only had this problem one time and it ended up being a faulty on/off switch. Once we replaced the switch, we saw spark at the plug and the generator ran great.
The Most Common Generator Starting Problems
Number 1 Most Common Problem – In all our years of dealing with generators that won’t start or run well, the most common issue was that the carburetor was clogged. Unfortunately, this will usually mean that the carburetor needs to be disassembled and properly cleaned. I can’t tell you how many times people have emailed me saying that they removed the air filter and sprayed carburetor cleaner into the carb but their engine still doesn’t run well.
I’ve never actually seen this strategy work, and yes, we have tried it. The reason this doesn’t work is because there are tiny passages that fuel needs to be able to pass through that are usually clogged with varnished fuel. Simply spraying the cleaner into the carburetor won’t clean these passages.
If you’re mechanically inclined, there are tons of good YouTube videos that explain how to clean carburetors. You may even find one that shows you how to clean the carb on the exact model of engine that your generator is equipped with.
If you decide to tackle this job, let me offer some friendly advice. Take lots of pictures of exactly where all the parts were BEFORE you start disassembling them.
A carburetor is a very sensitive part of your engine and it isn’t something that you can “get close enough” when you’re reassembling it. It MUST be reassembled very precisely.
Another bit of advice is to resist the temptation of sticking a wire or small drill bit through the passageways that you’re trying to clean. Do this and you’ll likely have to replace your entire carburetor. Carburetors are made from soft metal and jamming hard metal objects into the tiny passageways will scratch them and they’ll never be the same.
Lastly, don’t spray carb cleaner onto the rubber seals and o-rings inside the carburetor.
Doing so will damage them and they won’t function properly when you reassemble everything.
Number 2 Most Common Problem – The other most common reason that generators won’t start is because the spark plug needs to be replaced. Spark plugs are very inexpensive so I don’t recommend trying to clean them. If you suspect that your spark plug might be bad, replace it. When you do, make sure that you read your engine owner’s manual to find out what the correct gap of the spark plug should be.
You can pick up a simple tool that is designed to make it possible to set the correct spark plug gap for about a dollar at the same store you buy a replacement plug.
Don’t Be Ashamed to Admit When You’re in over Your Head
It’s my sincere hope that this article has been helpful to you. For those of you who feel like you have the necessary mechanical skills to work on your generator, I wish you the best of luck. After all, knowing how to work on our own generators has saved our family a lot of money over the years.
Now, having said that, if you feel like you’re not capable of properly cleaning a carburetor, the best advice I can give you is to swallow your pride and seek help from someone with more experience.
If you're like most folks, you probably didn't study every detail in your generator owner's manual. We get it; it's more important to get your lights back on than it is to read about proper maintenance intervals during an emergency.
However, when storm-induced power outages last weeks and not days, running your generator around the clock will put a tremendous toll on the machine. That's why it's important to consistently maintain your generator so it starts quickly and works efficiently for as long as you need it to while surviving an emergency.
During extreme weather or temperature conditions, the regular maintenance schedule in your owner's manual will be accelerated from annually to hourly. By taking good care of your generator, you can ensure that it will take care of you when you need it most.
Keep Your Generator Running in Extreme Conditions:
- Use Hourly Maintenance Schedule
- Check the Oil Frequently
- Use Correct Weight Oil
- Maintain Air/Oil Filter
- Change Spark Plug
- Use a Cold Weather Kit
Check the Oil Often
A lot of folks will think they bought a "lemon" when their generator seizes up after a few days of continuous running. Usually, the problem is just the result of low or no oil. To prevent damage to the engine, many generators have a low-oil shutdown feature. At the first sign of a misbehaving generator, check the oil first.
Unlike the liquid-cooled engines used in your car, most generator engines (20kW and less) are air-cooled and will burn through oil much more rapidly in extreme conditions.
If you're running your emergency generator daily over an extended period, we recommend topping off the oil whenever you refuel and doing a full oil change before every 100 hours of use. Just make sure you let the unit cool down before servicing.
What Type of Oil Do I Need?
Refer to your owner's manual for accurate information on proper oil maintenance for your generator. The manufacturer will list the type of generator oil you need and the proper procedure guidelines to follow.
Viscosity refers to the thickness of an oil at a particular temperature. Generally, running your generator in extremely cold temperatures will require a lower-viscosity oil to make sure it will start. In contrast, you should use higher-viscosity oil in extremely hot temperatures.
Below is an example chart from a manufacturer's owner's manual. Refer to your manual to find the recommended oil to use.
For proper emergency preparedness, having a clean air filter and spare spark plug on hand is the best practice to ensure your generator runs well in extreme conditions.
Maintaining the Air Filter
Though it is recommended to replace your air filter, to clean your current air filter, wash in soapy water and dry gently in a clean cloth. Use caution, or else you might tear the filter and render it useless.
Maintaining the Spark Plugs
Check your spark plug after continued generator use as stated in the owner's manual. In extreme conditions, you may want to check it more often. Inspect the spark plug by taking it out after the engine has cooled. This will also give the engine a break after heavy-duty running.
If it's dirty, clean it by lightly agitating with a wire brush, then check the gap, and replace it using a torque wrench.
Note: overtightening a spark plug can strip the threads, or break the porcelain insulator and cause irreversible damage to the engine.
Home Standby Generator Maintenance
If your home is equipped with a home standby generator, you know how convenient they can be. However, they have a few additional maintenance steps that will ensure it runs at peak-performance for years to come.
Changing the Oil Filter
These larger generators will have an oil filter that needs to be replaced on a regular maintenance schedule. During emergencies, we recommend changing the oil filter at least once during an extended power outage. Refer to your manual for the manufacturer's recommendations.
Shop All Generator Oil Filters
Generator Maintenance Kits
As a convenience, pre-assembled maintenance kits can be purchased on our site that includes everything you need to properly maintain your standby generator. Regular maintenance will make emergency conditions much easier to handle.
Cold Weather Kits
Did you know that there are cold weather kits made specifically to ensure that your home standby starts like it should during extremely cold weather? They include battery warmers and even oil heaters that give the engine the support it needs to fire up easily.
Preparing for the Worst
You can never be overprepared for bad weather, especially when you live in climates with fluctuating or extreme temperatures. They say that "the best offense is a good defense," and that concept holds true with generators too. Reading up on more informationwill help prepare you for an emergency before it occurs.
Engine knock is among the most disturbing problems a vehicle can have, but not many people know what it is, or how it is caused. Basically, engine knock (also known as pinging, detonation and spark knock) occurs when the air/fuel mixture inside a cylinder is incorrect, which makes the fuel burn unevenly. Under normal conditions, the fuel burns in pockets, rather than in one giant fireball within, and when each pocket of fuel burns, a shock occurs that burns the next until all the fuel is burned in that stroke. When a knock is present, the pockets don’t burn evenly, causing shock waves at the wrong times that can damage the cylinder wall and the piston itself. This also creates the common “pinging” noise that is often described when knock is present.
Engine knock can be caused by many things, however, some of the most common are as follows:
- The fuel in your car has too low of an octane rating. – The octane rating of gasoline is sometimes known as the AKI—anti-knock index. Manufacturers recommend a certain rating to maintain optimum performance in their vehicles. If you use gas that has an AKI that is too low, you can use an octane booster, purchased at any auto parts store, to bring it back to levels that will allow normal function. If you use the correct rating and it still has issues, try a different brand of gasoline. Using a gasoline with an AKI higher than the manufacturer recommends will not have any adverse affects.
- Carbon deposits on cylinder walls. – All fuels sold in the U.S. are required to have a certain level of carbon cleaning detergent in them, however this may not be enough to stop deposits from forming. When deposits form, the volume of the cylinder is effectively decreased, which increases compression that can cause knock. To combat this, first try to purchase some detergent additive at an auto parts store, and then try switching fuels. If your car is prone to knock, you may want to add the detergent at every fill-up.
- Your vehicle has incorrect spark plugs. – Manufacturers have recommended spark plugs for every vehicle, and often list some alternatives. If your car is running anything other than what is suggested, you may have knock. The heat range of a spark plug is often in its part number, and the spark plug is designed to run at that range. Its job—other than producing spark—is also to withdraw heat from the combustion chamber and into the head. Try to change your plugs if altering your fuel doesn’t help.